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ABSTRACT

This thesis has studied the relation between fish raising and livelihood security in two villages in the Quang Thai commune, Quang Dien District, Thua Thien Hue province. The study was conducted during five months of fieldwork from May to October 2007, and explored which factors influenced the livelihood security of households from fish raising. Fish raising has different impacts as income generating activity on the livelihood security of households in the two villages studied: Lai Ha village and Trung Lang village. Villagers in Lai Ha have access to agricultural land and their main income activities are rice cultivation, whilst villagers in Trung Lang mainly base their livelihoods on the lagoon resources. Very few Trung Lang villagers are able to access agricultural land for cultivating. Thus, both villages depend, albeit to a different degree, on the lagoon for their livelihood. Recently, fish-raising gained popularity in the two villages. Aquaculture is integrated with other income activities to supply for livelihood needs. Comparing the income level of Lai Ha and Trung Lang village, the study found that fish raisers in Trung Lang earn 59,6% less yield and 56,6% less income from fish raising compared to those in Lai Ha. This is very considerable difference, which is determined by factors such as higher level of illegal fishing, theft and the contamination of fish through the insect “bet”. Another important factor explaining different outcomes is the natural environment in the Lagoon. This environment is determined by the Cua Lac dam. This dam stands between two villages which results in a more favourable condition for aquaculture in Lai Ha in comparison with Trung Lang. The dam prevents salt water from entering the lagoon at Lai Ha. The availability of freshwater prevents insect contamination, because the insect can only live in salt water. Downstream, in Trung Lang, salinity and insect existing are persistent in summer, which have caused lost of raised fish. Furthermore, the different outcomes of fish raising between poor and non-poor households within each village are also determined by cost of fingerlings. The impact of fish raising is also influenced through the management of the Tam Giang Lagoon. People are free to access the lagoon resources. However, this impedes fish raising to exist in the long run. The Quang Thai lagoon, as a common pool resource, is both the fishing ground of fishers and an aquaculture area for fish raisers. Although management institutions are in place, the use rights in water area allocation are not well defined legally or enforced through the state (Suong 2006). Therefore, conflicts between fish raisers and traditional fishers arise when the fishing ground is narrowed down by the aquaculture development or when the fish in cages is hurt due to illegal fish catching activities. Weak enforcement of the government leads to a high level of illegal fishing and, in return, prevents the development of fish raising in the Quang Thai commune.

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Bạn đang ở trang: Home Ấn phẩm Luận văn thạc sỹ Pham Thi Hong Nhung (2008) - Fish Raising In Cage In The Tam Giang Lagoon. The Contribution of Aquaculture to Livelihood Security In Two Villages